The Myth of Indica and Sativa

One of my biggest pet peeves about the cannabis industry is hearing budtenders (and other people) ask me if I prefer Indica or Sativa. I usually cringe a little and side step the question by saying that doesn’t matter to me, I want to see and smell what you’ve got and then I’ll make my decision.

Sometimes I get irritated and I want to yell, “There is nothing substantial about that question at all!” A few years ago nobody gave a damn whether it was Indica or Sativa. Except for the growers, and now we know we didn’t have the proper understanding of Cannabis species when we spoke about it based on its growth pattern and maturation time.

A couple of weeks ago I was on The Real Dirt Podcast talking to the host, Chip Baker (who also happens to be my husband) about the taxonomy of cannabis and this myth of Indica and Sativa. It was a great episode really going deep into what botanists and ethnobotanists have come to hypothesize about Cannabis. I’m going to go into it a little here, but to hear the juicy details and personal rants, check out the The Taxonomy of Cannabis episode!

The Myth of Indica and Sativa

There is a commonly held belief that Indica are short, stout, broad leaf plants that are physically sedating or relaxing and Sativa are tall, narrow leaf plants that are invigorating and uplifting when ingested. There is actually no truth to this belief, but it continues to be perpetuated online and in dispensaries throughout the world. The (present) reality is that the myriad of cultivars that we smoke/ingest are all Indica.

After years of rigorous research from botanists and ethnobotanists, there are still different theories regarding the evolution of cannabis taxonomy, but what is widely accepted by most is that it is C. indica is the vast majority of biotypes in North America and that C. sativa includes only European hemp. In Robert C. Clarke and Mark Merlin, PhD’s comprehensive text, Cannabis Evolution & Ethnobotany, they discuss the history of cannabis biotypes from several different perspectives, the most plausible being from Karl Hillig, PhD.

CANNABIS BIOTYPES ACCORDING TO HILLIG (2005)

Acronym & Biotype Binomial Early Range Uses
PA-

Putative Ancestor

C. ruderalis Northern

Central Asia

Possible- seed and crude fiber
PHA- Putative

Hemp Ancestor

Unrecognized or Extinct Balkan peninsula

Caucasus Mtns

Possible- seed and crude fiber
NLHA- Narrow leaf

 Hemp Ancestor

C. sativa ssp. spontanea Eastern Europe

Central Asia

Seed and crude fiber
NLH- Narrow leaf Hemp C. sativa ssp. sativa Europe Seed and textile fiber
PDA- Putative

Drug Ancestor

Unrecognized or Extinct Hengduan Mtns

Yungui Plateau

Possible ritual and medicinal
BLHA- Broad leaf

Hemp Ancestor

Unrecognized or Extinct Eastern Asia Possible seed and crude fiber
BLH- Broad leaf Hemp C. indica ssp. chinensis China, Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia Seed and textile fiber
NLDA- Narrow leaf

 Drug Ancestor

C. indica ssp. kafiristanica Himalayan Foothills- Kashmir to Myanmar Euphoria- hashish, “marijuana”
NLD- Narrow leaf Drug C. indica ssp. indica South & SE Asia,

Middle East

Euphoria- hashish, “marijuana,” fiber, seed
BLD- Broad leaf Drug C. indica ssp. afghanica N. Afghanistan, Pakistan Euphoria- hashish

As you can see from the chart, the only ancestor of C. sativa hails from the Balkan Peninsula. The ancestor of C. sativa ssp. spontanea is a Narrow Leaf Hemp Ancestory from Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and the modern C. sativa spp. sativa is Narrow Leaf Hemp from Europe. Both the ancestor and the modern C. sativa have been used as seed and crude fiber, not for intoxication/euphoria, as in the case of the Narrow Leaf and Broad Leaf Drug C. indica.

I know this news is hard to accept for some, but we already know that it is the cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBC, etc) and the terpenoids (myrcene, pinene, limonene, etc) that elicit the therapeutic, invigorating, sedating, and other affects that are associated with ingestion of cannabis.  Since we know that it is the cannabinoids and terpenoids that produce the favorable (and sometimes adverse) effects, why do we keep saying it is because it is an Indica or Sativa?

It is time we stopped disseminating misinformation and educate ourselves about the true properties of cannabis (or what we know so far). Remember there are well over 100 cannabinoids and we have identified only a handful. We still have a very long way to go before we truly understand what contributes to the therapeutic and euphoric effects of cannabis.

To learn more about terpenes and other aromatic and medicinal plants, watch my videos on Youtube!

You can also check out my Baker Botanica 5 Element Essential Oil blends (fyi: the Balance/Earth Element contains Hemp essential oil!)

Follow me on Instagram- baker_botanica and on Facebook at Jessica Baker, LAc

Whether you prefer Indica or Sativa, I always appreciate your support.

With love,

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Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

Featured image: unknown (but thank you!)

The Herb Walk Podcast: Metal Element Episode

Season 2 of The Herb Walk Podcast with Jessica Baker is finally here!!  

Happy Samhain/Halloween! I am happy to announce the release of Season on one of my favorite holy days, Samhain! Known as Witches’ New Year, Samhain is the end of summer for the Celtic traditions. An auspicious day to release my new season!

In this first episode I introduce the 5 Elements of Chinese Medicine and discuss the Metal Element, the element that is associated with Autumn.

This season I’ll read from my book, Plant Songs: Reflections on Herbal Medicine, discuss Chinese herbal energetics, and interview amazing people like Rachael Carlevale of Ganjasana, Kelly Green of Refugio Altiplano, Nicole Gagliano of Wild & Wise Herbal CSA, and much more!!

Subscribe on iTunes or Stitcher and never miss an episode!

With love,

Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

Full Moon Reflection Tea

When you are ruled by the lunar cycles, the Full Moon can be an energizing few days (and nights). I’ve been waking very early in the morning mentally wide-awake, enjoying the time to lie there without feeling like I “should” be doing something. I usually don’t have issues staying asleep, so there is no anxiousness with my midnight waking. It has been a refreshing moment of peace, where I can reflect on where I am at, physically and emotionally.

I’ve been working out more so my body has been sore. A good sore, but one that wants to keep me lying in bed, warm and cozy, instead of getting up to make tea. Emotionally I have been anxious. At times overwhelmed by the weight of the world when I think about the changes that are happening on a global scale. In my lucid waking state, I can observe all of this detached and reserved from judgment.

Being in this calm, perceptive state reminds me of how Reishi mushroom makes me feel. Called Ling Zhi, spirit mushroom, in Chinese medicine, Reishi is known to Calm the Spirit and Nourish the Blood of the Heart. Being a Superior herb, one that can help guide you to your life’s purpose and increase longevity. That sounds great to me. According to the classics (and modern research), Reishi can help me live longer and be more tranquil. Sign me up!

If you’re like me and you need something to help chill you the F*** out (I can only smoke so much weed!), then try a good mushroom extract like Host Defense, created by mycologist and genius Paul Stamets. Or be like me and make yourself a Full Moon infusion, allowing the yin of the moon and the yang of the Full moon nourish and balance the energies within you.

Full Moon Reflection Tea

Place 1 medium sized Reishi mushroom into a pot with 3 cups water. Bring to a boil and simmer for 10 minutes. Pour water and mushroom into a clear jar and set outside under the Full Moon. In the morning, take out the mushroom and drink the tea throughout the day. You can also leave to infuse in the sun the next day and drink one cup that evening and one cup the following day.

The longer you simmer the mushroom, the more bitter the tea will be. Regardless of the taste, the effect is relaxing and revitalizing. Something we all need right now!

With love,

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Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

PS- Remember to join me Monday at 7pm MST for a (Free) Facebook Live video on Aromatherapy & Chinese Medicine. Like my page and I’ll see you there!

The Ugly Truth about Essential Oils

It astonishes me how many essential oil companies encourage excessive use of essential oils. These companies are well aware of how much plant matter it takes to make an essential oil, still they promote undiluted use and harmful large doses (yes, one drop of some essential oils can be a large dose).

The amount of plants needed depends on what plant is being used. The amount of oil that is extracted from each batch will fluctuate due to many factors such as temperature and climate, interaction with insects, soil health, fertilizer use, and other natural and human influences.

Since Lavender (Lavandula angustofolia) is so popular and Rose (Rosa damascena) so expensive and exotic, I will use them as our examples.  

Plant Part Needed to make an Essential Oil

Approximate Flowers Needed for a Pound of Essential Oil

 

Approximate Flowers Needed for 30 ml (1 fl. oz) of Essential Oil Approximate Flowers Needed for a Drop of Essential Oil

Lavender flowers

250 pounds 6 pounds

6 stalks

Roses 10,000 pounds 630 pounds

50 roses

References: Crop Watch, Mountain Rose Herbs

As you can see, there is a dramatic difference between how much plant matter it takes to make an ounce of essential oil. What is evident is that it takes A LOT of material to make a small amount of essential oil.

That is why I am so concerned when I hear companies tell people to use essential oils for everything from anxiety to digestive issues.  With the knowledge of how many plants it takes to make even an ounce of essential oils, it is obvious that our current use of essential oils is not sustainable. Why use a highly concentrated essential oil, when inhaling a single flower or drinking a simple cup of herbal tea will do the trick.

If we want the variety of essential oils we enjoy to be available in the future, we should not be using essential oils undiluted, we definitely should not be using them in the irreverent way they are being used now, and we shouldn’t purchase oils from companies that don’t care about sustainability. The greedy practices of MLM companies like Young Living and doTerra, which promote inappropriate and excessive use of essential oils, do not care how their business practices perpetuate habitat extinction and ecological instability across the globe.  All they care about is making more and more money off of destroying our precious plant species.

A prime example is how last year Young Living was sentenced for violating the Lacey Act and the Endangered Species Act for the illegal trafficking of Rosewood (Aniba roseaodora) essential oil. This is a serious crime, as Aniba roseadora is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Sure Young Living was fined $760,000 for their offense, but the Justice Department calculates the market value of Rosewood essential oil they sold to be between $3.5-$9 million. Young Living made a pretty penny off their crime as they contributed to the decimation of one of our many endangered species. Way to go! Not really the values of a company I want to support.

In my 5 Element Essential Oil Blends I use the least amount of essential oil possible to elicit the aromatic properties I want in each of my 5 Element creations. I think it is extremely important to educate people on the importance of conservative use of our plant medicines. The enthusiasm for these precious oils is potent, and I know you want to use these precious oils. It is absolutely imperative, we use them wisely. If you want to learn more more about aromatherapy and on how to properly dilute essential oils, watch my video on Dilution & Frequency of Essential Oils

We have to use our dollars wisely and hold companies (and each other) accountable for our actions, or I fear there won’t be many plant species for our future generations. It will take all of us doing our part. I’m glad we’re on this journey together.  

To hear more about aromatherapy, herbalism, and Chinese medicine subscribe to my Youtube channel (new videos coming soon!) and my podcast, The Herb Walk with Jessica Baker.

With love (and hope),

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Jessica Baker, LAc, RH (AHG)

when energy flows, wellness grows

 

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Sunday Evening Come Down Foot Soak

My feet ached after three nights of dancing to one of my favorite bands, STS9. Two of those nights were at Red Rocks Amphitheater, which boasts 380 stairs to the top. Needless to say, I needed to soak my feet!

I pulled out my resin foot bowl, filled it hot water, threw in flowers, sea salt, and a couple of drops of essential oil, grabbed a book (Educated by Tara Westover- not the best book when trying to relax, but a must read if you haven’t), a joint, a glass of water, and chilled. It was beautiful.

And not something I do often enough. As I sat there feeling the warmth of the salt water and the aroma of the herbs work their magic, I began to breathe long deep breaths of relief. The intensity of the last couple of months moved through me and freed up tension that entangled my muscles and my mind.

After three eclipses, everything retrograde, and moving into production of my essential oil line, I finally felt like myself again. The effects of a little self-love and recognition for the transformations I have gone through are still marinating, but it feels good. Like I will transcend into loving myself for exactly who I am.

I share my Sunday Evening Come Down Foot Soothing Soak recipe with you, but I encourage you to choose whichever flowers and herbs you need that day.

Sunday Evening Come Down Foot Soothing Soak 

Handful of Sea Salt (can use Epsom salt)

Handful of dried Organic Rose petals

3 sprigs of fresh Tulsi Basil (from my friend Willow’s yard)

3 sprigs of fresh Garden Sage (from my yard)

6 sprigs of fresh Mints (variety from my yard)

2 drops of Lavender essential oil  

Muddle the herbs and add to footbath (bin, or tub big enough to fit both feet), along with the salt. Fill the bath 1/4-1/2 full with water that has been boiled. Add enough cold water to have your feet rest comfortably. Add essential oil and disperse it in the water. Take a moment of gratitude as you immerse your soles in the warm liquid. Soak your feet for as long as you feel like it. Keep adding hot water (it’s awesome if you have someone boiling water and replenishing it for you, but that could be wishful thinking). After you dry your feet, apply coconut oil liberally. Pour the herbal water into your grass or garden. Give thanks for the nourishment they provide.

If you don’t have a bin or tub large enough to fit both feet, or your body wants it, make this a bath soak instead of a foot soak.

Take care of those souls. And remember to keep on dancing.

If you want more herbal recipes, check out my book, Plant Songs: Reflections on Herbal Medicine from Balboa Press.

With love,

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Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

 

Overcoming Fear- One Inhale at a Time

I’ve been fighting the urge to be in a bad mood for a couple of weeks now. There are all kinds of things I can blame it on- politics, regulatory agencies, conservatives. The reality is, I am irritated with myself.

With all of the injustices in the world I don’t feel as if I’m doing enough. I talk a good talk, but there have been weeks of just feeling hopeless and not accomplishing anything. I haven’t wanted to rush out to volunteer or march because it’s been hard to even be around people. I’ll be honest crowds have been intimidating lately.

And that irritates me- because I know that media and politicians love to spread fear and me not wanting to be in crowds is a direct effect of their propaganda.

I’m over feeling paralyzed and frustrated. I’m over blaming “them” for my discontent.

I’ve been seeing so much on social media about self-care being the most important thing you can do to help others.  I agree, kind of. Yes self-care is the most important thing I can do- at first. Then I have to do more. We have to do more. Just getting massages and taking time to walk in the woods is actually not enough to change the world. Time and time again, it is direct action that works.

I am at a place again where my anger is no longer stifling me, but preparing me for action. The challenge for me is to fuel this action with love and compassion and not fear and hate (which is sometimes easier said than done!) I always have my faithful herbal allies, reminding me that an open mind and calm heart is the only way forward.

Besides fueling myself with black tea (I have been adding rose petals to balance it out- does that count?), I’ve been using my Water Element Courage essential oil blend. I formulated these blends with the intentions and energies of each of the five elements of Chinese medicine. The Water Element is associated with Zhi, our determination and willpower. When we have conviction, purpose and vitality, our Water Element is balanced and we are able to respond with courage and resiliency. When our Water Element is depleted, we may experience fatigue, lack of control, or fear, which further drains our reserves.

The essential oils in the Courage blend can help bring the Water Element back into balance so that we may be the change we want to see in the world.

Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)- for metal/water connection

Wild Frankincense (Boswellia carterii)- for calmness and serenity

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)- for relaxation of body and mind

Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanoides)- for rooting deep into your principles and desires

To order Courage or other 5 Element Blends, check out my new website www.bakerbotanica.com

With love,

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Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

Finally! 5 Element Essential Oil Blends

It is an auspicious day that I should have my 5 Element Essential Oil Blends available on the Full Moon in Capricorn! I feel like I have finally made it to the top of a mountain riddled with self-doubt and fear. I overcame it all and finally have my creations to offer the world! Please spread the word far and wide- we’re shifting the paradigm around essential oils!

I started Baker Botanica because I believe we need a sane, educated voice when it comes to essential oils. We need advocates for sustainability within the aromatherapy and herbal industries. We need opposing forces to the MLM companies that dominate the market and promote excessive and unsafe use of essential oils. One of the largest essential oil companies on the market, Young Livingjust got a HUGE fine ($760,000) for illegal trafficking of rosewood oil and spikenard oil in violation of the Lacey Act and the Endangered Species Act (Check out the sentencing on the Department of Justice website). Is this really who should be at the top of of the essential oil industry? Are these the people who should educate on how to work with plants?!

I also created these seasonal solutions to honor the natural cycles of the cosmos according Passion Baker Botanicato Chinese Medicine. As the seasons shift, so do we. At times these shifts can be difficult or unsettling. The elemental blends are meant to help with the transition and the energy of each season. For example, Passion, is the blend I created for the Fire elementThe Fire element corresponds to Summer, the color red (or pink), joy, passion, love, and creativity, the energies of the heart and pericardium,

If you need your  passion flared or to find more joy in life, the Fire Element Blend was created for you.

May these oils bring you Clarity (Wood), Passion (Fire), Balance (Earth), Resolve (Metal), and Courage (Winter). 

With love and gratitude,

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Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

 

Honeysuckle Honey Recipe

Heaven is walking around my neighborhood this time of year! Along with the Linden Roses, and Lilacs, one of my favorite aromas erupt from the Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) that spread wherever they are planted.

In my book, Plant Songs: Reflections on Herbal Medicine, I share messages (songs)

Chapter 5 Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle by Jason Garcia

that were gifted to me from the plants I encounter. Honeysuckle reminds us that to grow we must

Dissolve & Evolve

Honeysuckle is your ally to remind yourself that you are worthy and capable of accepting divine love and compassion. It is when we can dissolve into the discernment of our own hearts that we evolve into the people we long to be.

Honeysuckle Honey

–       1 cup fresh honeysuckle flowers (Make sure they are not sprayed)

–       2 cups honey

Place honey and flowers in the top of a double boiler and heat on low for 20-30 minutes. Turn off heat and strain out flowers. Store honey in a glass jar. Add a teaspoon to black or herbal tea.

Fresh Honeysuckle Tea

Gather a handful of fresh honeysuckle flowers. Boil 2 cups of water. Pour hot water over flowers. Cover cup with lid. Steep for 10 minutes. Strain out flowers and compost plant material. Slowly drink the fragrant tea. Sweeten tea with honeysuckle honey.

To find out more about herbalism through my blog, podcast, and other offerings, check out my website, Baker Botanica.

With love,

cropped-jessicabaker 

Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

Featured Image: from permies.com

Fragrant Flower Tea Recipe

My daily walks around Denver are so aromatic this time of year. Everywhere there are roses, dogwoods, cottonwoods, and lilacs wafting their gifts my way. The rain has made everyone vibrant and green, coming to life after winter.

All of their beauty has inspired me to share a recipe from the Rose chapter of my book, Plant Songs: Reflections on Herbal Medicine. I hope Rose fills you with as much love as she has me.

Rose’s Song: Love Yourself, Everyday

Fragrant Flower Tea

Harvest a handful of roses, daisies, calendula, violet flowers and any other edible flower (make sure they are not sprayed with pesticides). If using lavender, use only a small amount, as it can taste soapy. Pour hot water over flowers and cover completely. Steep for 20 minutes in a glass jar with lid on. Strain flowers and collect water in a glass quart jar. Drink the tea throughout the day to open your heart and promote relaxation.

If you’d like to order your copy of Plant Songs, go to Balboa Press or Amazon.

With much love and gratitude,

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Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

Featured Image: Rose created by Jason Garcia 

Cannabis Chai Recipe

To get us all ready for the big cannabis celebration tomorrow (420) I thought I’d share one of the recipes from my book, Plant Songs.

I hope you enjoy this chai as much as I do. Not only is it delicious, you’ll feel pretty good too!

Cannabis Chai

–       3 grams dried cannabis flowers

–       1 tablespoon Assam or Darjeeling

–       1 crushed cardamom pod

–       1 inch piece of fresh ginger root

–       1/4 teaspoon fennel seeds

–       1/4 teaspoon dried orange peel

–        1 teaspoon cinnamon powder

Simmer 4 ounces water, 4 ounces of milk (the fattier the better—whole milk or coconut milk), and all ingredients together for 20 minutes. Strain out cannabis and other ingredients and set aside. Drink 2-4 ounces of the tea as needed to promote appetite, reduce nausea or as a gentle relaxer. 

To enjoy this recipe and others, order Plant Songs today!

With love and gratitude,

cropped-jessicabaker

Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows