A Peaceful Journey

May has been one full of dramatic changes. It hasn’t just been the weather, where we have had 80 degree days, thunderstorms, hail and snow all within a couple of weeks. The shifts have also been of heart and soul.

Many of us are coming to grips with the undeniable injustices that are occurring all over the place. These horrific acts have always been happening, but now with the internet we know exactly when they happen and sometimes we even get a live feed.

We want to know what’s happening so we can try to change it. I just don’t know if our psyches are able to assimilate all the information that comes at us in newsfeeds, notifications, and pop-ups.

I know for me it is overwhelming and downright obnoxious. Knowledge is power, but a lot of what we see is not knowledge, but distraction and opinion pieces that look like real news. How are we supposed to know what is important and relevant and what is just written to rile us up.

As I sit here upset with the way things are, I remember that I can help change what I don’t like to see in the world. My place is just to remind others, and myself, that it is our relationship with Nature that will bring about the greatest peace. I just have to find peace within myself and then I will be much more peaceful and loving towards others (easier said than done!).

Here’s my Peaceful Journey Blend that I will be dousing myself with all day today, and probably the next 4 years! Remember, use organic and ethically wild-crafted herbs and essential oils whenever possible! And use those precious essential oils sparingly!!

Peaceful Journey Blend 

3 drops Mt. Shasta Lavender essential oil- relaxes NS, reduces anxiety

3 drops Clary Sage essential oil- brings clarity to thoughts and feelings

2 drops Mandarin essential oil- transforms energy

2 drops Frankincense essential oil- reduces pain and sorrow

Add all essential oils to 1 ounce carrier oil (I Love apricot kernel oil). Mix well. Put in a roll-on bottle and anoint yourself when you need clarity and relaxation.

With love,

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Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows 

Open Up & Let Hawthorn In

Everyone wants to be cracked open. We experiment with drugs and psychedelic substances to blow our mind wider than we even though imaginable. We play football, skydive and speed in our cars for the excitement of the rush. We watch death and destruction as entertainment and participate in violent computer simulations until the domestic violence and world wars of our reality no longer bothers us. We obsessively check our social media status to see if we’re liked, followed and adored. For those addicted or crippled from these activities, they know what they’re doing, yet they can’t stop. We all hear the voice inside our head that says, “stop hurting yourself; you’re better than this; get off the computer and go outside.” It is in the stillness of nature or in those quiet moments between sleeping and waking we hear our truth being whispered back to us.

When I envision a person cracked open it is a red -faced cartoon character with his head blown open like a volcano erupting. He is not necessarily angry, but there is so much pressure (social, financial, marital) that just like a volcano, the only way to release the build up is to explode. Some erupt with anger, others destruct with gambling, drugs, TV, food. It is when we are incapable of digesting one more thing where Hawthorn comes in.

Hawthorn berries relieve stagnation from sluggish digestion, transforming turbid energyhawthorn and reducing plaque in the arteries. The leaves and flowers of hawthorn have long been used as a cardiac tonic, regulating heart beat and reducing pain. Regular ingestion of Hawthorn will strengthen the body’s ability to physically digest fats, while also helping the mind/soul digest unprocessed emotions and stress.

See for yourself. Make an infusion of Hawthorn leaf, flowers and berries to sip after a heavy meal or when you are having trouble digesting something you have seen or heard. Allow Hawthorn to clear the turbid energy from your body. With this clearing, comes the opportunity for the heart to blossom just a little bit more.

With love,

JessicaBakerPic

Jessica

When energy flows, wellness grows

Hawthorn Art by: Robert O’Brien

Reflections on the Mountain West Herb Gathering

IMG_0316I cannot say enough positive things about the Mountain West Herb Gathering.  As with any conference there are bound to be unexpected hiccups but my experience as a teacher and attendant was that it was not only a well organized event but extremely heartfelt as well. I’m already getting excited about next year’s gathering.  Thank you Amanda Klenner for putting on such a welcoming event!  Check out her monthly herbal publication Natural Herbal Living

As someone new to Colorado, I am also happy to have met more local herbalists!  Every class I attended was wonderful, but my favorite had to be Healing the Spirit: Using Plants, Song and Prayer in Modern Herbal Practice, with Shelley Torgove and Monticue Connally.  I am glad they are both in Denver so I can learn more from them.  Deep healing occurred in the space created in their class.  There is nothing like singing with the plants!

IMG_0338My favorite part was to see (hear, taste and feel) new and old plant allies.  The mountain yarrow and horsetail looks so delicate and tender compared to our North Coast varieties.  I have found the mountain plants to be smaller, but packed full of vital energy due to their ability to thrive in such harsh conditions.  And the conifers!  I got to taste and smell the differences in some of the pine, spruce and fir.  The medicine in these mountain plants are strong and give us the gift of resiliency.  So needed at this time.

I leave you with a simple tasty tea that can be easily harvested from many places around the world.  Just make sure the trees and flowers haven’t been sprayed or are close to a heavily trafficked area.

Conifer Rose Tea IMG_0181

1/2 cup needles of your favorite evergreen (pine, spruce, cedar, cypress, fir, redwood)

1/4 cup wild roses

1/4 cup wild blackberry or raspberry flowers

Make a sun infusion with needles and flowers for 2-3 hours.  Strain out herbs and drink deeply.

When energy flows, wellness grows

Happy Summer and Abundant Blessings,

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Jessica

Artemisia: Moon Medicine

I don’t know about y’all, but I am feeling the yang energy of Summer approaching.  Thankfully the warm weather has hit Colorado and life is returning to the mountains after what seemed like a long Winter.  Yesterday I went hiking in Eldorado Canyon and saw many of my favorite herbs, including Artemisia, Pine, Yarrow and Rose.  Coming from California, I am used to a much earlier Spring and I was surprised at how small the Artemisia still are.  I could feel their compact potency though and am excited about seeing them grow throughout the season.

Did you know that we use several Artemisia species in Chinese Medicine?  Each species has it’s unique taste, temperature and therapeutic action. Ai Ye, Artemisia argyi, is so important that it is a separate modality of medicine.  We call the burning of Ai Ye, Moxibustion and we use it to warm the meridians of the body and expel cold, relieve pain due to cold stagnation, dispel dampness, stop cough, and calm the spirit.  If you have PMS or painful menstruation due to cold or damp, moxibustion over the abdomen can provide warmth and relief.  (Always have a qualified practitioner advise you on moxibustion application)

The first mention of Artemisia in Chinese medicine was in the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (Divine Farmer’s Materia Medica), probably written around 200CE.  In that text, Ai Ye, was said to make the body light (bring you back to the light being you are), sharpen your eyes and ears, and prevent senility.  Ai Ye was also said to promote hair growth, eliminate evil qi in the five viscera, boost qi and supplement the middle jiao.

Today, we use the essential oil of various  Artemisia species for many reasons.  The essential oil of these plants can be very strong and must be used with caution (thujone content varies with each species).  I like to massage Artemisia alba (Mugwort) essential oil (diluted in hemp oil) on my abdomen before and during menstruation to reduce stagnation due to cold and damp that can cause cramps, bloating and tension.  I also diffuse a couple drops of essential oil in my home as well to help reduce any accompanying irritability.  Adding Lavender can further enhance your relaxation.

To help reduce infectious respiratory diseases, diffuse Mugwort essential oil or burn Ai Ye as you would White Sage throughout your house to repel “evil” energy.  This can also be effective for clearing negative energy out of your space.  You can smudge yourself with it when you need more energy or clarity.

I leave you with a spritzer recipe that I hope you enjoy as much as I do!  Artemis is the Maiden Goddess of the Hunt and the Moon and Achilles was an undefeated warrior that represents courage and strength.  I like to think these two plants work as a yin (Artemis) yang (Achilles) pair that can bring about deep healing and the courage needed to witness your own healing.

The Alchemy of Artemis & Achilles artemisia-vulgaris-1

1-2 drops wild Artemisia essential oil (alba, argyi, or vulgaris preferred)


1-2 drops wild Achillea essential oil (yarrow)

1/2 ounce wild Helichrysum hydrosol

1  1/2 ounces spring water 

Add water and hydrosol to a 2 ounce glass jar with pump spray top.  Add essential oils.  Shake well and thoroughly blend mixture.  Spray on any injuries (physical or otherwise) that need healing.  Great for bug bites, sprains, dermatitis and deep traumas of body or spirit. This blend is a great healer, as it helps to balance the duality of our yin/yang nature.   

When energy flows, wellness grows

Abundant Blessings,

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Jessica

Cultivating Wildness

Over the weekend I had the opportunity to teach at my favorite herbal symposium in existencesympcircle_05 today.  The Northern California Women’s Herbal Symposium is the Heart medicine that we all deeply crave.  There is a collective healing that is palatable and at times so thick that you have no choice but to witness the truth of your own pain.  It is beautiful.  I am so grateful for the women that work endlessly to provide this space for us all.

 
A highlight of the weekend for me was stargazing with Stargazer Li.  A fantastic story-teller and mischievous medicine maker, Li has given me an even deeper fascination with the cosmos.   As we lie on our backs and gaze out into the universe, Li mentioned that what if in fact we were looking down at the sky and not up, as we have no idea where we were in the rotation of the Earth.  The sensation created in my mind and body when I thought I was above the sky and not below it was exhilarating.  It made me feel weightless, formless and in the infinite void (WuJi in Chinese medicine).

stunning-images-of-the-universe-from-hubbleIt is moments like these when we remember our wildness.  There are no physical barriers or limitations to what we are capable of achieving.  It is all in our perception, attitude and awareness.  When I am totally aware that I am connected with everything around me, I feel limitless, endless and free.  This is our true nature- connecting, communicating, exchanging with all of life around us.  I am blessed to have stepped into those moments and allowed myself to open up to their gifts.

I leave you with a tea that I hope will inspire you to open up to your own gifts, and to your true, wild nature.  You will need good gloves to harvest these herbs- they are covered in prickles and thorns (like many of our paths in life!)

I’m Wild and Free TeaWild_rose

1 handful wild nettle

1 handful wild horsetail (unopened)

1 handful wild blackberry leaves/flowers/berries 

1 handful wild roses

Make a sun (and/or moon) infusion with  1-2 quarts water.  Strain (or not) and drink deeply.

When energy flows, wellness grows

Abundant Blessings,

JessicaBakerPic

Jessica

Celebrating an Herbal Activist: An Interview with Mary Blue

This weeks blog is an interview with activist and herbalist, Mary Blue.  She is the founder of Pharmacy Herbs Community Health and Education Center in Providence, Rhode Island and has opened the Sage Clinic, a collaboration with Brown University Integrative Medicine Residency program.  Along with being a farmer, medicine maker and professor, Mary Blue is also a talented rapper.

JB: How did your herbal journey begin?mary-back-cover1

MB: I started using herbs for personal healing in 1998. I was drawn to herbs because I needed to connect to the earth in all aspects of my life, especially self care. It fit with my lifestyle and environmental advocacy work. I was engaged in community organizing and activism while working to detoxify my life and the planet. Herbalism aligned with my natural instinct to help people too. I also saw herbs as a way to passively resist big pharma, and their control over health care.

In 2001, I volunteered at an herb shop in my home town of Providence, RI. The owner, Danielle Cavallacci, eventually hired me. I apprenticed and worked with Danielle for 3 years. After studying at Indigo Herbals, I was hired at Seven Arrows Herb Farm in Southeastern Massachusetts and worked there for 4 years. I worked in the greenhouses, herb shop and organized herbal events (this is where Radherb was born in 2006). This is also where I started offering consultations, classes and herbal products. In early 2008, my best friend, Jessica, died of cancer, and asked our community to donate to building Farmacy Herbs instead of buying flowers. I was able to open the Farmacy Herbs Community Health and Education Center in the summer of 2008….This was a lasting gift to me and the community from a beautiful dying friend.

I was also part of the anti-globalization movement from 1999-2010. We were always fighting against something.  After 10 years, I went from lobbying, to the streets, to the court rooms, to the herbal clinics, and I realized that that high intensity work was not sustainable for me long term. I then decided to pursue community herbalism as a career, and weave my social justice principles into my work. I still occasionally show up to rallies, city hall, and I am still fighting in the courtroom with the Fire Cider battle! I feel lucky that I am able to be an herbalist that can make a living without compromising my social justice principles.

JB: You wear many hats as herbalist, farmer, entrepreneur and professor of Western Herbalism at Brown University Medical School, how did the opportunity to work at Brown University present itself?  

MB: After traveling around in my twenties, I realized if I wanted to affect any positive social change, I needed to stay in one place and focus.  Since 2006, one of my goals has been to affect change in the health care system through working with local doctors. I believe that if doctors are educated on what an herbalist can do to support their patients, this could change health care for a lot of people. As time went on, I built my herbal practice while many of my clients were also working with local doctors. I began developing relationships with doctors through their patients. The patients were having success with my protocols, telling their doctors, and that is how it all started.   In 2010, I was invited to speak at Memorial Hospital by Dr. John McGonigle. He is an integrative family medicine doctor and runs the Brown University Integrative Medicine Residency Program.

Since then we have been collaborating on clients, classes for my herb school and now, teaching at Brown Medical School.  John and I also just became business partners  and opened the Ocean State Holistic Medical Collaborative, Sage Clinic. This clinic is the teaching site for the Brown University Integrative Medicine Residency Program and for my Herbal Residency Program.

JB: Can you speak about the trademark lawsuit over the Fire Cider name that you and two others (Nicole Telkes and Katheryn Langelier ) have been named in? (learn more about trademarking commonly help names at http://freefirecider.comFireCiderRecipe

MB: We have an amazing legal team, which we are so thankful for. They have put a lot of thought into our case, and have completed hundreds of hours of work for little pay. At this point in the case, our lawyers are advising us to not make any statements regarding the details of the case. It is highly stressful for all of us and our families to be in this position.

I hope the herbal community understands that we are juggling a lot right now, and if your email goes unanswered for a week or longer, that we are doing the best we can to keep up with our lives, the case and our businesses. Our group Tradition Not Trademark is committed to seeing this through and fighting for our traditional herbal terms to the bitter end.

UPDATE from Tradition Not Trademark: AMAZING NEWS to report on the lawsuit Shire City brought against the herbalists Mary Blue, Nicole Telkes and Katheryn Langelier!!!! On May 12, 2016, the federal court in Massachusetts dismissed five out of the ten claims that Shire City had brought against the 3 defendants. The claims that were dismissed were all based on the three defendants’ participation in the movement to cancel Shire City’s “Fire Cider” trademark registration. Shire City had claimed that the 3 defendants’ activities had caused Shire City $100,000 in damages.

JB:  Where do you see herbalism going in the future, in terms of education, licensing, and regulation?

MB:  In terms of Western Herbalism education, it seems to be growing fast!  We don’t have national standards for herbal education, so it’s hard for any Western Herbal student to follow a clear path to becoming an herbal practitioner.  I see a lot of my students choosing to be acupuncturists or massage therapists because there is a clear path to a career.

I think it would be helpful to have a community standard that differentiates between educational requirements for a family herbalist, community herbalist or a clinical herbalist. We do have the American Herbalist Guild, but many herbalists (like myself) are not easily accepted into the AHG, and because of this they do not represent a large portion of herbal practitioners.  I would love to see coalition of established herb schools come up with educational standards for Western Herbalists. These standards would not have to be enforced by law… they would be community standards that would help herbal students and the general public understand what it actually means to be a clinical herbalist, community herbalist or master herbalist.

My generation (40 years old) was the last generation that didn’t have access to multiple blogs, podcasts and online learning tools when we were budding herb students in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s.  All of my education was in person with teachers, in the clinic or working directly with clients. I feel that that aspect of learning is integral to herbal education, and I hope that the ease of access to internet education doesn’t dilute the traditional way of learning herbs through hands on, in person, education. I also think it is amazing that there are so many more online resources out there for new herbal students!!

Herb schools like Farmacy Herbs and Vermont Center for Integrative Herbalism (and many others) are working on training professional herbalists in the art of herbal medicine AND to understand the legal aspects of becoming an herbalist. This includes health justice principles, cultural competency, FDA regulations and more. I think it is integral for all herbal students to understand not just the how-to of herbal medicine, but all of the political and legal aspects of herbalism too.  For more info about health justice principles, check out my webinar hosted by the American Herbalist Guild onMay 17, 2016 at 7pm on Politically Compassionate Herbalism.

The regulations on herbal product companies are extremely hard to comply with. As an herbal product company owner, I had to make the decision whether or not to bring my product to the mass market or stay small. If herbal business owners want to go big or sell online, then they must understand that this could mean a lot of red tape and money. I decided to stay small, selling herbs only to local restaurants, stores and at clinics in Rhode Island.  All herbal companies (small or large) should do due diligence to follow Standard Operating Procedures and follow local health department laws.

There are pros and cons regarding licensure and regulations. On one side, licensure could provide some legitimacy to the field of herbalism in the allopathic setting, and could potentially allow herbalists to take insurance…which would be great.

On the other hand, do we really want to be regulated by a system that does not comprehend all the complexities of herbal work?  I really hope the growing field of herbalism can be defined by the herbal community, not the government.

JB:  What is the most important message about herbalism that you want to share with the readers?

MB: I would like to share that I think it is important for herbalists to understand (at minimum) and be active with the legal and political aspects of herbalism; this includes trademarking of traditional terms, understanding what is happening with the FDA, and understanding health justice principles. I also think that to survive these legal barriers and the growth of our profession and herbal education (without an agreed upon standards in the field) — AND avoid it being co-opted or misrepresented in this process — herbalists must be focused on setting the standard for herbal production, education and clinical work in our local communities and nationally.

Understanding and implementing standard operating procedures and using structure and function language with herbal product and in our consultations are small ways we can all work together to set the standards for what it means to be a professional herbalist.

JB:  Thank you for your passion and activism.  The world is a better place with activists like you working on all of our behalf.  

When energy flows, wellness grows

Abundant Blessings,

JessicaBakerPic

Jessica

Releasing Old Wounds

Growing up, May was always  one of my favorite months.  It signified the end of school and the beginning of a summer of adventure and travel.  Since my Grandma passed away at the end of May in 2004, May had taken on a more somber feeling.  Then last year a friend committed suicide on May 9th.  The anniversary of her death was harder on me than I thought it would be.  The same feeling of shock and despair that I felt when I heard she had killed herself resurfaced and stayed with me for a couple of days.  My shadow side (or Po) has been stirring, revealing things about myself I must acknowledge, accept and let go of.

I have been relying on my herbal allies for the support I know I need.  The amount of gratitude I have for these plants cannot be described in words.  They are the life-giving, soul-awakening, heart-opening experiences we are all desperately searching for.  All it takes is a moment between you and a plant to remind you that you are loved, unconditionally, no matter what.

IMBR-00193067-001St. John’s Wort has been in my life for years and one I use both internally and externally for depression, nerve irritation and pain.  I am referring to neurological pain but also to when people are getting on your nerves.  There are times when I am getting on my own nerves, and St. John’s Wort works wonders.  I am instantly cheered when I take fresh St. John’s Wort tincture.  She has been an integral part of me finding joy in all the dark places my mind has gone this week.  I am lucky enough to have been able to harvest my own the last several years and have had a steady supply of fresh oil and tincture on hand.

Rose is an herb that has always brought me a sense of peace when I drink a tea of her wild-rose-782x534blossoms.  The essential oil of Rose has given me cathartic bouts of crying that I haven’t been able to access in years.  All of the sorrow from a lifetime of loss came spilling over and was almost unbearable.  Adding Lavender essential oil to Rose is what actually allowed me to relax enough to process it all.  It was a beautiful experience and one I obviously needed, but for now I may just go back to just the Rose tea!

There are a few more (Skullcap, Oatstraw, Chaga), but I like to keep my blog as short as possible.  I’d rather you go outside and sit quietly with a cup of tea than read more ramblings.

I leave you with an aromatherapy blend that can be applied to the chest, throat or temples, or anywhere you feel it needs to go.  I like to dilute in 1 ounce organic apricot kernel oil and use as a massage oil or add to my bath.  Use organic and ethically wildcrafted ingredients.

Life Reviving Anointing Oil

1-2 drops Rose essential oil (brings grief to the surface to be released)

1-2 drops Lavender essential oil (relaxes the body, mind and spirit, facilitates release)

1-2 drops St. John’s Wort essential oil (brings joy back into your heart, reduces irritation)

1-2 drops Vetiver essential oil (works on healing deep wounds, chronic soul-ache)

Bring your shadow side to light so that All parts of you can be healed by the universal love that binds us all. 

When energy flows, wellness grows

Abundant Blessings,

JessicaBakerPic

Jessica

Aromatherapy: An Interview with Mindy Green

Mindy Green has been someone I have admired since I began studying herbalism in 1999. mindy greenThe book she co-authored with Kathi Keville, Aromatherapy: A Complete Guide to the Healing Art, inspired many herbalists to deepen their study of plant medicine with aromatherapy. This book continues to be a valuable resource for anyone that has an interest in herbalism or aromatherapy.

Mindy Green, MS, RA, RH (AHG) has over four decades of experience and success in the natural products and health care industries. Her expertise on botanical medicine has rewarded her with positions at Aveda Corporation and the University of Arizona’s Center for Integrative Medicine. She is a prolific writer and speaker and has her own consulting company, Green Scentsations, LLC. Mindy is an environmental activist and believes plants in all their forms create healing, globally and individually.

It is with great pleasure that I bring you this interview with Mindy Green

JB: As a lover of plants and herbs, I have at least 10 plants I say are my absolute favorite. What are some of your essential plant allies?

MG: FOR HERBS, I AM A BIG FAN OF THE NERVINES. WE ARE ALL SO BUSY AND STRESSED OUT, WITH LITTLE TIME FOR OURSELVES. I LIKE THE DAILY-USE HERBS THAT GENTLY CALM SUCH AS OAT, LEMON BALM, CHAMOMILE, LINDEN AND MOTHERWORT. I ALSO LIKE THE NOURISHING TONICS – NETTLE, ALFALFA AND DANDELION. OF COURSE, EVERYONE SHOULD BE USING THE ADAPTOGENS – SHIZANDRA, ASHWAGANDA, AND ASTRAGALUS AMONG MANY OTHER OPTIONS. I OFTEN USE MANY OF THESE HERBS IN SOUP STOCK AND OTHER FOOD DISHES… IT JUST FEELS LESS MEDICINAL AND MORE NOURISHING. AFTER ALL, THE MORE WE USE HERBS AS FOODS, THE LESS WE WILL NEED THEM AS MEDICINES. WHICH BRINGS TO MIND A FEW MORE: GARLIC, GINGER AND TURMERIC!

AS FAR AS ESSENTIAL OILS GO, I OFTEN REACH FOR LAVENDER, HELICHRYSUM, CISTUS, ROSE AND FRANKINCENSE. A BLEND OF THESE IS EXCELLENT FOR MATURE SKIN THAT HAD TOO MUCH SUN EXPOSURE IN THEIR YOUTH (ME!).

JB: Essential oil use is getting popular, in part to MLM companies that promote somewhat excessive use of their products. With the immense plant matter that it takes to create 1 ounce of essential oil, are their essential oil companies on the market that are promoting sustainable farming and harvesting practices?

MG: THERE ARE MANY COMPANIES WHO DO KNOW OF THIS CONCERNING ISSUE. WITH ESSENTIAL OILS GOING MAINSTREAM IN MANY RETAIL OUTLETS (MOST RECENTLY IN TARGET), I PUT AN EMPHASIS IN ALL MY CLASSES ON AN AWARENESS OF THE PLANT MATERIALS REQUIRED TO OBTAIN A DROP OF ESSENTIAL OIL. I ALWAYS RECOMMEND A MORE HOMEOPATHIC APPROACH TO DOSING, RATHER THAN THE HEROIC APPROACH THAT, IN MY OPINION, IS USUALLY A WASTE OF PRECIOUS RESOURCES AND A RISK TO PERSONAL WELL BEING ON MANY LEVELS. THIS IS A BIG SUBJECT AND ONE THAT WAS ADDRESSED AS A NEW CHAPTER IN THE SECOND EDITION OF MY BOOK (WITH MY COAUTHOR), 2009 – Aromatherapy, a complete guide to the healing art.

JB: This may not be an area you have insight on, but we are all familiar with natural products like Aubrey Organics and John Masters that are prevalent in natural grocery stores. Are products like these using sustainable practices in regards to the herbs and essential oils in their products?

MG: I AM NOT AWARE OF THE SUSTAINABILITY POLICIES OF THESE COMPANIES, IN PARTICULAR. THOUGH, HAVING WORKED AT A LARGE ENVIRONMENTALLY AWARE COSMETIC COMPANY FOR MANY YEARS, I CAN TELL YOU THAT ESSENTIAL OILS ARE GENERALLY USED AT VERY LOW PERCENTAGES FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS: COST, RESOURCE LIMITATIONS, CONSUMER SENSITIVITIES AND LIABILITY. ALSO, MANY ESSENTIAL ARE EFFECTIVE IN EXTREMELY LOW DILUTIONS, SO NOT MUCH IS REQUIRED, DEPENDING ON THE CLAIMS A COMPANY MIGHT BE MAKING OR WHAT THE PRODUCT IS TRYING TO ACCOMPLISH.

JB: What, if any, challenges do you see with herbalism and the natural products industry in the near future?

MG: I SEE MUCH MORE INTEREST; EVEN MAIN STREAM TV COMMERCIALS ARE BRAGGING ABOUT BEING MADE WITH NATURAL INGREDIENTS AND NOT CONTAINING ARTIFICIAL COLORS, ETC. ALSO, THERE ARE MANY DOCS BEING TRAINED IN INTEGRATIVE CARE, PROVIDING GREATER EXPOSURE FOR MANY ADJUNCT TREATMENTS BEYOND ALLOPATHY. IN GENERAL, I BELIEVE THIS CAN BE A POSITIVE STEP FORWARD, ONE THAT MANY OF US HAD HOPED TO SEE WHEN WE STARTED OUT 40 YEARS AGO. HOWEVER, THIS ALSO REQUIRES MORE AWARENESS OF RESPONSIBLE SUSTAINABILITY PRACTICES AND MORE ORGANIC SOURCING AND CULTIVATION FOR RAW PLANT MATERIALS TO KEEP UP WITH DEMAND. IT ALSO REQUIRES THAT CONSUMERS BE AWARE OF ADULTERATION IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE HERB AND ESSENTIAL OIL INDUSTRIES.

 JB: Would you like to add anything about herbalism, aromatherapy, or your services?

MG: THE GROWING INTEREST IN PHYTOTHERAPIES IS EXCITING. I MEET NEW GRADUATES OF WELL QUALIFIED EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND IT IS GREAT TO SEE ALL THE WAYS THEY ARE INTEGRATING THEIR PRACTICE IN MODERN HEALTHCARE, ESPECIALLY WITH NUTRITION AND HERBAL THERAPIES. I WISH THEY WERE IN PLACE WHEN I WAS YOUNG, BUT MANY OF MY CONTEMPORARIES WERE THE INITIATORS OF SUCH PROGRAMS. IT IS WONDERFUL TO SEE THE EVOLUTION OF THOSE FIRST SPARKS OF THE NATURAL PRODUCTS MOVEMENT.

I DON’T SELL PRODUCTS ON MY WEBSITE, BUT PROVIDE SERVICES TO THOSE SMALL COMPANIES JUST STARTING OUT, OFFERING THE WISDOM OF MY EXPERIENCE OVER THE PAST 43 YEARS IN MANY ASPECTS OF THIS INDUSTRY.

JB: Thank you for taking the time for this interview and for your love of spreading the wisdom of the plants.  I have included a link so readers can find out more about your consultation business. 

Mindy Green’s consultation business: www.greenscentsations

National Association of Holistic Aromatherapists: www.naha.org

Alliance of International Aromatherapists: http://www.alliance-aromatherapists.org/

Blessings,

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Jessica

Gather With Us: An Interview with Herbalist Amanda Klenner

This week’s Herbal Pioneer Interview is with Amanda Klenner, herbalist and publisher a49b59_fdec54436e6342fa87bc92f26db2b804of Natural Herbal Living Magazine. Amanda’s enthusiasm and knowledge of herbalism has inspired her to put on the first annual Mountain West Herb Gathering June 16-19, 2016 in Breckinridge CO to educate about the diverse bio-regions of the Mountain West.

JB: What inspired you to put on the Mountain West Herb Gathering (MWHG)?

AK: We have a beautiful history of herbalism here in Colorado, ignited by Paul Bergner and Feather Jones when they started NAIMH, now known as Colorado School of Clinical Herbalism, which is now run by Lisa Ganora. This school and others have ignited a passion for herbalism, focusing specifically on the bio-regions here in Colorado. There are hundreds of herbalists here, and in the surrounding states with vast knowledge, experience, and passion to share, but there hasn’t been a place for us all to gather, share ideas, and connect.

I decided to start Mountain West Herb Gathering as a place for herbalists to connect and share our ideas, passions, and experiences. It is also a place where we can discuss the environmental changes we are seeing, and talk about what impact this is having on the plants. I am hoping it will be a place to focus on ethical harvesting of native and invasive plants, and help us become better stewards of the land that we work and play on.

JB: How did you choose the teachers for the Gathering?

AK: The teachers were chosen based on their experience in teaching herbalism, as well as their experience with particular plants, microclimates, or modalities. Each herbalist teaching at MWHG has something unique and exciting to share with the herb world, and knows how to present that information in a way that is engaging of not only the mind, but the heart and soul as well. They are experts in their field, and are teaching what they feel passionate about.

JB: You present 2 classes at MWHG, can you please tell us about them?

AK: The first class I am teaching is: A Holistic Approach to Chronic Pain. I have had chronic pain for over 10 years after bulging disks while working in a hospital. That initial injury triggered a few auto-immune diseases, one being Fibromyalgia. I manage my daily pain through lifestyle, diet, and herbs. I know many people who insist that fibromyalgia, and chronic pain, can’t be healed, but they can be managed naturally, if a person has the tools they need to support their body in its natural healing process. This class is meant to be a first step, an idea of the tools we have as herbalists and healers to help others through chronic pain.

Chronic pain is a condition 100 million Americans experience on a daily basis. It is more a more common health problem than heart disease, diabetes, and cancer combined. It isn’t talked about much, and is often glanced over in holistic health books. Many times this is due to ignorance or inexperience in working with chronic pain. It can seem like a hopeless cause, because there is no quick fix. There is no cure. It is a big, complex problem with many moving pieces, and this is where holistic health can shine. We can incorporate many different healing modalities like yoga, meditation, psychological support, spirit work, exercise, herbal remedies, and custom diets to help manage and reduce chronic pain symptoms.

The second class is A New Hope: Teaching Kids About Their Plant Friends. I have two little ones, my daughter is 5 and my son is 4. They are growing up with an herbalist for a mother, and as such are often out hiking with me into the wild places, and helping me gather plants for food and medicine. They as questions, observe, touch, taste and feel the plants. We talk daily about plants having feelings, spirits, and powers, for lack of a better word. Children see the magic and mystery of the plants, and are able to listen to their intuition when working with the plants. I like to help foster that creativity, and that internal knowing, and help children make life long friends with their plant allies. I like to go to my daughter’s school and teach about the plants, while doing fun kid-friendly activities. I wanted to bring that experience to the table, and share with others some fun kid-friendly ways to learn about the plants.

JB: How can people and sponsors get in touch with you to be a part of the Gathering?          

AK:  People can find more information about MWHG at www.mountainwestherbgathering.com, and register for the conference on EventBrite at https://www.eventbrite.com/e/mountain-west-herb-gathering-tickets-20631884522?aff=ehomesaved .

If people would like to contact me more about the conference, you can e-mail me at mountainwestherbconference@gmail.com.

I hope to see you there this June! It is sure to be a fantastic experience.

JB: Thank you for educating so many of the healing powers of the plants.  I look forward to attending the MWHG!

Abundant Blessings,

JessicaBakerPic

Jessica

A Celebration of Cannabinoids

This blog post continues my interview with neurologist and psychopharmacology researcher, Ethan Russo. Ethan has worked with cannabis extensively since the 1990’s img-dr-ethanand continues to pioneer the research on the human endocannabinoid system. He is the former Medical Advisor to GW Pharmaceuticals and Past-President of the International Cannabinoid Research Society. What I like most about Ethan’s work is his ability to scrutinize down to an individual constituent all the while understanding the importance of the synergy of whole plant medicine.

In my final questions with Ethan,  we speak about terpenoids, the future of cannabis laboratory testing and how the FDA is responding to the labeling of CBD products.  It is my hope that these interviews help dispel the deception that has surrounded cannabis since its prohibition and help create a more informed future.

You can read the first part of the interview here Herbal Pioneers Interview with Ethan Russo

JB: The number of terpenes that are significant in lab testing is constantly changing.  Which, if any, chemical constituents are responsible for the enhancement of CBD? THC? 

ER: There have been over 200 terpenoids isolated from different cannabis chemovars, but certain ones predominate, especially myrcene in modern strains, which largely accounts for the “couchlock” that is all too common nowadays, even with cannabidiol strains that should actually be slightly stimulating, but for that.  When limonene is included in sufficient amounts, it tends to “brighten” the effect and exert a pronounced mood elevation that can be quite helpful in many chronic conditions. A rare component these days is pinene. It has a remarkable ability to counteract the short-term memory impairment engendered by THC, an effect that makes cannabis treatment problematic for patients that still need to utilize it while they work or study.

CBD is still a difficult commodity to find in many states. When present in high amounts, it will delay and blunt the peak high of THC somewhat, prolong its effect, and reduce its tendency to increase heart rate and anxiety. Beyond that, it has remarkable benefits on pain and inflammation.

JB: Since pinene is a rare component in cannabis today and has the benefit of counteracting short-term memory loss, and other herbs like pine contain pinene, is research being done on the synergist effects of other herbs with cannabis? 

ER: There may be a lot of experimentation going on out there along these lines. I have current plans for formal clinical trials to examine cannabinoid-terpenoid interactions. The protocol is all set to go—we merely need funding to initiate the experiments.

JB: I have seen the same sample of Cannabis test at different levels from different testing laboratories.  Are you familiar with the laboratory standards of establishing THC and CBD percentages? Are these percentages even remotely accurate?

ER: We need to keep in mind that virtually all the analytical labs are actually contravening federal law by doing these assays. I’m afraid the quality control in the industry is quite hit or miss, with many examples of poor work and extreme variability. There are laboratory certifications available now, and these should be encouraged. Assays of cannabinoids are difficult, and hampered often times by lack of good analytical standards from industry. The best labs develop their own. Terpenoid analysis is even more technically challenging, and few labs offer that at the present time.

JB: The FDA has sent cease and desist letters to some CBD product manufacturers stating that there is some evidence of medicinal use and so cannot be sold as a dietary supplement.  Do you believe research has proven that Cannabis has several medicinal properties? 

ER: It is certain that cannabis has many medicinal properties. Just as a simple example, Sativex® (USAN: nabiximols), a cannabis-based oromucosal spray is approved as a prescription pharmaceutical in 27 countries for spasticity (muscle tightness) in multiple sclerosis. In Canada, it is also approved for pain in MS and in cancer unresponsive to optimized opioid treatment. Another cannabis-based medicine, Epidiolex®, an almost pure cannabidiol extract should be soon approved by the FDA in the USA for treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. However, approval of such a pharmaceutical form of cannabis will not influence the scheduling of other cannabis products. The FDA first went after CBD producers that had no cannabidiol in their products. Now they are issuing cease and desist letters to other companies that are exaggerating the CBD content, or making unsubstantiated medical claims. Rather, structure-function statements should be the maximum claim, as is currently the situation with other herbal products in the USA.

While we’re at it, for better or worse, cannabidiol is still a Schedule I forbidden drug in this country. Claims to the contrary, such as “Our CBD is derived from hemp and is legal in all 50 states,” are a function of tortured legal logic and wishful thinking.

JB: Ethan, thank you for participating in this interview and for your diligence in spreading the truth about cannabis.

To see Ethan Russo speak in person, attend the Medicinal Cannabis Conference in Arcata, California April 23-24, 2016 http://www.medicalmarijuanaconference.net/?page_id=246

For more information on Ethan’s work and our endocannabinoid system, check out

researchgate.net/profile/ethan_russo/contributions

phytecs.com

Happy 420 everyone!  We have witnessed the end of cannabis prohibition and an evolutionary leap of consciousness.

When energy flows, wellness grows

Abundant Blessings,

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Jessica

Herbal Pioneers Interview with Ethan Russo

img-dr-ethanI am honored to begin my Herbal Pioneers Interview Series with an interview with neurologist and psychopharmacology researcher, Ethan Russo. Ethan has worked with cannabis extensively since the 1990’s and continues to pioneer the research on the human endocannabinoid system. He is the former Medical Advisor to GW Pharmaceuticals and Past-President of the International Cannabinoid Research Society. What I like most about Ethan’s work is his ability to scrutinize down to an individual constituent all the while understanding the importance of the synergy of whole plant medicine.

This became a two-part series as I like to keep my blog posts short and I encourage readers to take the time to follow the links Dr. Russo provides for more in depth answers to the questions.  In the first interview Ethan describes how he began researching cannabinoids, debunks the terms “sativa” and “indica” and explains how those descriptions have nothing to do with the effects attributed to them. (Thank You-this has been a pet peeve of mine for a long time!)  In next week’s blog we discuss terpenoids, the future of cannabis laboratory testing and how the FDA is responding to the labeling of CBD products.

JB:  Ethan, thank you for participating in this interview and for your diligence in spreading the truth about cannabis.

Aa young scientist, what inspired you to research the constituents present in the Cannabis plant?

ER: After several years in practice, I came to believe that I was giving increasingly toxic pharmaceuticals to my patients with less and less progress. Some of my patients were employing adjunctive cannabis to treat their illnesses even back in the 1980s, especially multiple sclerosis. This caused me to look back to my teenage interest in medicinal herbs. I then embarked on a mission to find herbal agents to treat migraine more effectively. The greatest abundance of herbal agents is found in the Amazon, so I took Spanish classes once a week for a year and a half before two trips to Peru. The second took place in 1995, when I spend the bulk of a three-month sabbatical working with the Machiguenga tribe in Parque Nacional del Manù. They had a great abundance of psychoactive agents and migraine treatments. Shortly after my return, I became embroiled in the clinical cannabis controversy. Over the next several years, I experienced continual federal roadblocks to that research and began writing, editing and lecturing on the subject, and eventually, in 2003, it became the primary focus of my work.

JB: Have you published (or will publish) anything on your work with the Machiguenga tribe? 

ER: Yes. I wrote an article on the Machiguenga tribe’s diet and its pertinence to Nourishing Traditions by Sally Fallon. It is accessible here: http://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/machiguenga-peruvian-hunter-gatherers/

JB: What is your opinion on the debate on whether there are two different species Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica (more if you include ruderalis or afghanica) or if all cannabis plants are Cannabis sativa

ER: I have personally been on every side of this issue. The botanical taxonomists will never agree. To be sure, the way that the terms “sativa” and “indica” are applied in common parlance is absolute nonsense. What consumers need to know is the actual chemical composition of the cannabis, both cannabinoids and terpenoids, in an accurate fashion by a reliable laboratory to have a better idea of its likely effects. I recently was interviewed on this subject at greater length, which is available here: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/can.2015.29003.ebr

Read next weeks 420 blog post with the second part of the interview and celebratory post!

To see Ethan Russo speak in person, attend the Medicinal Cannabis Conference in Arcata, California April 23-24, 2016  Medicinal Cannabis Conference Website

For more information on Ethan’s work and our endocannabinoid system, check out researchgate.net/profile/ethan_russo/contributions and phytecs.com

When energy flows, wellness grows

Abundant Blessings,

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Jessica

 

Transforming Darkness into Light

Are you feeling it?  I Am.  

Today’s New Moon and my first morning back home after an epic trip to Baja has me feeling a little introspective.  The fiery nature of Aries is once again awakening something deep within me, while the darkness of the moon has me wanting to retreat deep inside.  I will find the delicate balance between action and nurturing myself.  I hope you do too.

This is normally when my husband and I would be preparing our land for the coming year, but since we are now in Denver I don’t quite know what to do with this spring energy that is beginning to burst inside me.  I am using this energy for internal growth, for growth of my relationships and to nurture myself as I continue to write Plant Songs.

What do you feel growing inside of you?  What is keeping you from tending to this part of yourself?  I encourage you to nurture it as lovingly as you would any other garden.  When we truly allow ourselves to blossom, this is the greatest gift we can give.  I love you and want you to know that I accept the unique gifts you have to offer.  The world is waiting for you!

I’m very excited for next weeks blog post, which Will be the interview with Ethan Russo!  It may become a series of interviews as our conversation led to follow up questions that I think readers would be interested in.  To familiarize yourself with Ethan before the interview, check out his latest research at phytecs

I leave you with a tea inspired by today’s New Moon.

New Moon Bloom

2-3 tbsp Milky oats

2-3 tbsp Spearmint leaf

2-3 tbsp Tulsi basil

2-3 tbsp Rose buds

1 tsp Cinnamon or Cardamom

Infuse herbs in a quart of water under the guidance of the moon.  Strain after 1-2 hours and drink slowly.  Allow the energy of the moon to infuse you with all the love, strength or courage you need to go into the deepest places within yourself.

When energy flows, wellness grows

Abundant Blessings,

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Jessica

Finding My Balance

As I write this from Los Barriles, a small ex-pat town in the desert surrounding the Sea of Cortez, I sit blissfully listening to the wind whip down the valley into the sea. The cowbells from the wandering goats and cattle remind me of temple bells and they instill a sense of calmness in me.

There is so much life in this desert and yet I can only identify a couple of plants since I don’t spend much time in this environment. There is something that looks very similar to ocotillo, but has more branches. A local told me the name and I can’t remember. A plant ID book is on the list for today.

The desert has always made me feel anxious. The last couple of years I’ve been trying to get over this aversion to it and coming to where the desert meets the sea is the perfect opportunity to have the best of both worlds!

Today I encourage you once again to go outside of your comfort zone.

Do something that scares the shit out of you! Then think back to why you had that fear. What does it feel like to know you have looked it in the eye?…and lived to tell about it!

Off to the beach, so I leave you with a tea that will help open you up to the infinite possibilities of your life (it’s very simple and very bitter)

Spirit of the Mushroom Tea

IMG_33661-3 small Reishi Mushrooms (Ling Zhi)

1 quart of water

Decoct the reishi mushroom in the quart of water for 20 minutes-2 hours.   Or boil the water and cover the mushrooms, let sit out under the moon.   Strain tea and drink ½ cup. Sit quietly and listen to the wisdom that awakens within you.

When energy flows, wellness grows

Abundant Blessings,

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Jessica

release fear

Release Fear & Embrace Life (+ A Herbal Tea Recipe to Help You Do So)

I have been told by several people that last week’s blog post helped them move through some serious anger they were holding.  As I continue to release what no longer serves me I am reminded that I continue to carry around fear, insecurity, and hesitation around my career.

After years of private practice, I have been teaching and writing more. It is scary! The part that frightens me the most is failure. For me, I don’t even know what this vague concept of failure really means. Does it mean my classes won’t be attended? Does it mean I don’t do the plants justice by not sharing their messages in just the right way? Or, is it my own low self-esteem just playing tricks on me?

Today, envision yourself accomplishing one of your loftiest goals. See yourself completely satisfied at the completion of something you dared to think couldn’t happen. What emotions are you feeling?  What do you look like? Are you the age you are now or is this in the future? Who is supporting you and cheering you on? Take this vision and place it in your heart. Be courageous and tell your closest friend what this dream/goal is. If they aren’t supportive, tell them you only need positivity to make this happen.

Here’s a simple herbal tea to help you release fear and increase positive abundance in your life:

Instructions:

  1. In 16 ounces of water add 1 to 2 tbsp Osha root and one reishi mushroom (cut in pieces if possible).
  2. Decoct (simmer) for 15 minutes.  Strain and put herbs aside to use in another batch of tea.
  3. This formula is Bitter! If needed, add honey to taste.

Osha root brings strength and courage while Reishi lifts the spirit, enhances spiritual, mental and physical wellbeing.

I bow to all of you courageous souls and encourage you to listen to your heart and fulfill your life’s purpose.

When energy flows, Wellness grows.

Photo: Aristocrats-hat

Fall & the Art of Letting Go

As I watch the leaves turn color, go limp and let go I am reminded of how beautiful it is to release what no longer serves me.

Our own process of going inward and releasing our fear, anger, and grief is like the autumn leaves. It requires a transformation, a surrender, and a liberation.

The past couple of days were hugely emotional for me as I let go of anger towards others and myself, owning my responsibility of forgiveness and motivated by all the energy I now have for myself. Holding on to blame and hatred has prevented me from being grounded and present on my own path.  I spent too much time giving my energy to negative thoughts about other people instead of focusing my positive intentions on what I am achieving.

Allow the courageous act of change that autumn inspires, help you let go of your inhibitions, excuses, judgements and anything else that is holding you back from moving forward in your life.

This autumn, eat root vegetables like dandelion and burdock to deeply nourish and ground you.  Drink teas of mint (spearmint, lemon balm) and sage (white, clary, or pineapple) to clear the respiratory tract. Begin taking a spoonful of elderberry syrup daily to boost yourself for the upcoming winter. Allow yourself 10 minutes a day to meditate, stretch, walk in the forest, sit on a bench in the park. Do nothing and just breathe. Revel in the fact that you are alive, you are here, you are you.

When energy flows, wellness grows.

Photo: Ian Sane

Be the Change With This Compassionate Heart Tea

July was a heavily emotional month with two Full Moons, the heightened energy of the summer, and all of the divisive news stories in the media.

The internet is an invention that has brought the entire world together and has even made our universe seem a bit smaller and more attainable by all of the satellite images of far away earth-like planets.

As our realities are becoming infinite, our minds and physical bodies are transforming from centuries of old truths and we are having a rough time keeping up with our new imponderable existence. In a Caroline Myss lecture, she spoke about how the invention of the atomic bomb and the realities of global destruction shifted us culturally, biologically and spiritually. That is why we are now a throwaway culture and why most of the structures we build are built to last more than 20 to 30 years.

Deep down in our DNA, we no longer believe we are going to survive as a species. Heavy shit, I know. But I am saying this so we can gain insight into who we are so we can become the person we want to be.

Like so many of you, I got caught up in the whirlwind of emotion that surrounded the death of Cecil, the majestic lion that was hunted and killed. I immediately felt an immense sadness that quickly transformed into disgust and anger towards the killer and what he had participated in. I wanted to separate myself from him and from all the acts of animal cruelty humans take part in.

I’m a vegetarian, but I do eat some eggs and dairy products. So I have no illusion that I perpetuate an industry that I loathe and speak out against. I also drive a truck, fly across the world in jets, forget my to-go cups and shopping bags and do all sorts of other things that harm our Mother Earth. And like everyone else, I feel bad about it and do what I can, when I can to make myself feel better. And that wasn’t the only disturbing news of the month that threw me off balance and shattered some of my realities.

With the current realities of the world, we constantly need to remind ourselves to love ourselves so we can love the other people on this planet and therefore make the world a better place.

Use the tea recipe, listed below, to remind yourself to be a more compassionate being.

Recipe: Compassionate Heart Tea

Instructions:

  1. In a quart jar, throw in a handful each of Hawthorn berry, leaves and flowers, rose petals and a touch of cinnamon powder.  
  2. Pour boiling water over herbs and cover completely. If you’d rather make a sun infusion, only cover herbs 1/4 with boiling water and add room temperature water instead and set out in the sun for 2 to 3 hours.  
  3. Drink a little before your daily meditation or anytime you need cheering up or clarity on a stressful situation.

As always, when energy flows, wellness grows. Love yourself every single day.

Celebrating the Summer Solstice

summer solsticeThe Summer Solstice has been celebrated in cultures around the world for centuries, maybe even for millennia.

In the northern hemisphere, today is the longest day of the year and the shortest night. In China, it represents the peak of yang energy with yin energy being at its lowest. Tomorrow will start the rise of yin and decline of yang, even though we normally see solstice as representing the beginning of summer.  

The perfect way to celebrate solstice is to invite your friends and community over for a feast with all of your favorite summer foods. If you are near water, jump in and balance the fire element of summer with a refreshing swim.

If you are in the southern hemisphere, today is the Winter Solstice and a good day to stay cuddled up inside with a good book and reflect on all that has come to pass in the last year.

Regardless of where you live, celebrate nature, the seasons, and all the abundance that is provided for us to thrive on earth.

It is also Father’s Day here in the United States, celebrate your Dad for all he has provided for you, as we celebrate Father Sun and all its life-giving properties.

Here’s a cooling drink to serve at your feast tonight or enjoy any time of day.  Feel free to add vodka, gin, whiskey or your drink of choice!

Cooling Drink Recipe:

Instructions:

  1. Using a gallon glass jar, add 1/2 cup raw sugar or honey, five squeezed lemons, enough loose green tea to fill about 1/4 of the bottom of the jar, and a handful of peppermint, spearmint or lemon balm sprigs.  
  2. Sit out in the sun for one to two hours. Strain the herbs and tea. Serve over ice and enjoy! For an extra fun drink, make the ice cubes with mint tea instead of plain water.

May your summer be filled with laughter, love, and abundance.

Photo: Jason