The Myth of Indica and Sativa

One of my biggest pet peeves about the cannabis industry is hearing budtenders (and other people) ask me if I prefer Indica or Sativa. I usually cringe a little and side step the question by saying that doesn’t matter to me, I want to see and smell what you’ve got and then I’ll make my decision.

Sometimes I get irritated and I want to yell, “There is nothing substantial about that question at all!” A few years ago nobody gave a damn whether it was Indica or Sativa. Except for the growers, and now we know we didn’t have the proper understanding of Cannabis species when we spoke about it based on its growth pattern and maturation time.

A couple of weeks ago I was on The Real Dirt Podcast talking to the host, Chip Baker (who also happens to be my husband) about the taxonomy of cannabis and this myth of Indica and Sativa. It was a great episode really going deep into what botanists and ethnobotanists have come to hypothesize about Cannabis. I’m going to go into it a little here, but to hear the juicy details and personal rants, check out the The Taxonomy of Cannabis episode!

The Myth of Indica and Sativa

There is a commonly held belief that Indica are short, stout, broad leaf plants that are physically sedating or relaxing and Sativa are tall, narrow leaf plants that are invigorating and uplifting when ingested. There is actually no truth to this belief, but it continues to be perpetuated online and in dispensaries throughout the world. The (present) reality is that the myriad of cultivars that we smoke/ingest are all Indica.

After years of rigorous research from botanists and ethnobotanists, there are still different theories regarding the evolution of cannabis taxonomy, but what is widely accepted by most is that it is C. indica is the vast majority of biotypes in North America and that C. sativa includes only European hemp. In Robert C. Clarke and Mark Merlin, PhD’s comprehensive text, Cannabis Evolution & Ethnobotany, they discuss the history of cannabis biotypes from several different perspectives, the most plausible being from Karl Hillig, PhD.

CANNABIS BIOTYPES ACCORDING TO HILLIG (2005)

Acronym & Biotype Binomial Early Range Uses
PA-

Putative Ancestor

C. ruderalis Northern

Central Asia

Possible- seed and crude fiber
PHA- Putative

Hemp Ancestor

Unrecognized or Extinct Balkan peninsula

Caucasus Mtns

Possible- seed and crude fiber
NLHA- Narrow leaf

 Hemp Ancestor

C. sativa ssp. spontanea Eastern Europe

Central Asia

Seed and crude fiber
NLH- Narrow leaf Hemp C. sativa ssp. sativa Europe Seed and textile fiber
PDA- Putative

Drug Ancestor

Unrecognized or Extinct Hengduan Mtns

Yungui Plateau

Possible ritual and medicinal
BLHA- Broad leaf

Hemp Ancestor

Unrecognized or Extinct Eastern Asia Possible seed and crude fiber
BLH- Broad leaf Hemp C. indica ssp. chinensis China, Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia Seed and textile fiber
NLDA- Narrow leaf

 Drug Ancestor

C. indica ssp. kafiristanica Himalayan Foothills- Kashmir to Myanmar Euphoria- hashish, “marijuana”
NLD- Narrow leaf Drug C. indica ssp. indica South & SE Asia,

Middle East

Euphoria- hashish, “marijuana,” fiber, seed
BLD- Broad leaf Drug C. indica ssp. afghanica N. Afghanistan, Pakistan Euphoria- hashish

As you can see from the chart, the only ancestor of C. sativa hails from the Balkan Peninsula. The ancestor of C. sativa ssp. spontanea is a Narrow Leaf Hemp Ancestory from Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and the modern C. sativa spp. sativa is Narrow Leaf Hemp from Europe. Both the ancestor and the modern C. sativa have been used as seed and crude fiber, not for intoxication/euphoria, as in the case of the Narrow Leaf and Broad Leaf Drug C. indica.

I know this news is hard to accept for some, but we already know that it is the cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBC, etc) and the terpenoids (myrcene, pinene, limonene, etc) that elicit the therapeutic, invigorating, sedating, and other affects that are associated with ingestion of cannabis.  Since we know that it is the cannabinoids and terpenoids that produce the favorable (and sometimes adverse) effects, why do we keep saying it is because it is an Indica or Sativa?

It is time we stopped disseminating misinformation and educate ourselves about the true properties of cannabis (or what we know so far). Remember there are well over 100 cannabinoids and we have identified only a handful. We still have a very long way to go before we truly understand what contributes to the therapeutic and euphoric effects of cannabis.

To learn more about terpenes and other aromatic and medicinal plants, watch my videos on Youtube!

You can also check out my Baker Botanica 5 Element Essential Oil blends (fyi: the Balance/Earth Element contains Hemp essential oil!)

Follow me on Instagram- baker_botanica and on Facebook at Jessica Baker, LAc

Whether you prefer Indica or Sativa, I always appreciate your support.

With love,

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Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

Featured image: unknown (but thank you!)

Finally! 5 Element Essential Oil Blends

It is an auspicious day that I should have my 5 Element Essential Oil Blends available on the Full Moon in Capricorn! I feel like I have finally made it to the top of a mountain riddled with self-doubt and fear. I overcame it all and finally have my creations to offer the world! Please spread the word far and wide- we’re shifting the paradigm around essential oils!

I started Baker Botanica because I believe we need a sane, educated voice when it comes to essential oils. We need advocates for sustainability within the aromatherapy and herbal industries. We need opposing forces to the MLM companies that dominate the market and promote excessive and unsafe use of essential oils. One of the largest essential oil companies on the market, Young Livingjust got a HUGE fine ($760,000) for illegal trafficking of rosewood oil and spikenard oil in violation of the Lacey Act and the Endangered Species Act (Check out the sentencing on the Department of Justice website). Is this really who should be at the top of of the essential oil industry? Are these the people who should educate on how to work with plants?!

I also created these seasonal solutions to honor the natural cycles of the cosmos according Passion Baker Botanicato Chinese Medicine. As the seasons shift, so do we. At times these shifts can be difficult or unsettling. The elemental blends are meant to help with the transition and the energy of each season. For example, Passion, is the blend I created for the Fire elementThe Fire element corresponds to Summer, the color red (or pink), joy, passion, love, and creativity, the energies of the heart and pericardium,

If you need your  passion flared or to find more joy in life, the Fire Element Blend was created for you.

May these oils bring you Clarity (Wood), Passion (Fire), Balance (Earth), Resolve (Metal), and Courage (Winter). 

With love and gratitude,

cropped-jessicabaker 

Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

 

4-part Cannabis Webinar Series Starting June 14th (with yours truly)

 

I am pleased to present a 4-part webinar series on Cannabis: Ancient Medicine, Modern Marvel through the American Herbalists Guild. Join us as we explore cannabis as well as our own endogenous cannabinoid system.

The breakdown of topics for this webinar series includes:
June 14: The Endogenous Cannabinoid System
In the first of four webinars, we will discuss the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) and its role in maintaining homeostasis in the body. The ECS is a network of neuro-modulation receptors within our brains, immune systems, and other parts of the body. It is a hemostatic regulatory system essential for key processes like pain, appetite, memory, and mood and pain regulation. The ECS also plays a role in regulating mitochondrial activity and neurogenesis. We will explore how the ECS interacts with other systems of the body and how herbalists can work with cannabis and other herbs to encourage optimum physiologic function.

June 21: Phytocannabinoids: Beyond THC
Phytocannabinoids such as THC (delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), CBD (cannabidiol), CBG (cannabigerol), and CBN (cannabinol) are found in varying amounts in all cannabis plants. High THC chemovars psychoactive properties are a result of prohibition but research also shows many health benefits of THC, such as being an anti-emetic and anti-inflammatory. Hemp is non-psychoactive and contains higher amounts of the phytocannabinoid CBD. Research on CBD shows it to be anti-convulsant, analgesic, and cytotoxic against breast cancer cells. In this webinar we will discuss the therapeutic and modulating effects of CBD and THC, as well as briefly review lesser known phytocannabinoids.

June 28: The Role of Terpenes in Cannabis
While terpenes are gaining popularity because of the rise in media coverage on medical and recreational cannabis use, terpenes have already been extensively studied for their aromatic and medicinal properties. A constituent like linalool is present in cannabis but is also found in high amounts in lavender, and a multitude of other aromatic plants. This webinar will discuss cannabinoids the most common terpenes found in cannabis, conifers, lavender, frankincense, and other aromatic plants. We will explore the synergy of phytocannabinoids and terpenes and reveal how aroma affects our limbic, endocrine, and endocannabinoid systems.

July 5: Cannabis Application: Inhalation, Ingestion, or Topical Use
In the last webinar we will discuss different ways to use cannabis as medicine. For some disorders inhalation (smoking, vaping, or aromatherapy) may be the most appropriate, for others ingesting edibles or applying topically will be of most benefit. We will discuss the pros and cons of each application method and consider how sugar, propylene glycol, hexane derived terpenes, and other additives make it into cannabis products. We will review the cannabinoid receptors found in the endocannabinoid system and consider which phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and method of application are best used for conditions like nausea, seizures, pain, memory loss, and more.

Register Today! 

With love and gratitude,

JessicaBakerPic

Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows 

The Essence of your Favorite Tree

“I’m leaving on a jet plane, don’t know when I’ll be back again”

I feel like this is my theme song the last couple of years! One of my favorite things to do is travel. It makes me feel alive, brings me closer to understanding other cultures, and makes me so grateful to have a planet as gorgeous as our Earth.

The recipe today is a simple offering from my heart to our life-giving Earth.

Sit at the base of your favorite tree (it can be in your yard, the park, or in the forest- just make sure it hasn’t been sprayed with pesticides or chemicals). Take 3 deep breaths and notice any subtle or profound changes in your body that occur with each breath.

What does the exchange of CO2 and O2 with this magnificent tree feel like? With permission, take a leaf, flower and/or twig from the tree and place it in a bowl of fresh spring (or filtered) water. Infuse in the water for as long as you have time, whether it’s 5 minutes or overnight).

When you feel ready, gently take out the plant material and take a sip of the infusion. Allow the vitality of the tree to flow through you. What medicine does this tree have to offer? What do you have to offer back?

With love,

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Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

A Peaceful Journey

May has been one full of dramatic changes. It hasn’t just been the weather, where we have had 80 degree days, thunderstorms, hail and snow all within a couple of weeks. The shifts have also been of heart and soul.

Many of us are coming to grips with the undeniable injustices that are occurring all over the place. These horrific acts have always been happening, but now with the internet we know exactly when they happen and sometimes we even get a live feed.

We want to know what’s happening so we can try to change it. I just don’t know if our psyches are able to assimilate all the information that comes at us in newsfeeds, notifications, and pop-ups.

I know for me it is overwhelming and downright obnoxious. Knowledge is power, but a lot of what we see is not knowledge, but distraction and opinion pieces that look like real news. How are we supposed to know what is important and relevant and what is just written to rile us up.

As I sit here upset with the way things are, I remember that I can help change what I don’t like to see in the world. My place is just to remind others, and myself, that it is our relationship with Nature that will bring about the greatest peace. I just have to find peace within myself and then I will be much more peaceful and loving towards others (easier said than done!).

Here’s my Peaceful Journey Blend that I will be dousing myself with all day today, and probably the next 4 years! Remember, use organic and ethically wild-crafted herbs and essential oils whenever possible! And use those precious essential oils sparingly!!

Peaceful Journey Blend 

3 drops Mt. Shasta Lavender essential oil- relaxes NS, reduces anxiety

3 drops Clary Sage essential oil- brings clarity to thoughts and feelings

2 drops Mandarin essential oil- transforms energy

2 drops Frankincense essential oil- reduces pain and sorrow

Add all essential oils to 1 ounce carrier oil (I Love apricot kernel oil). Mix well. Put in a roll-on bottle and anoint yourself when you need clarity and relaxation.

With love,

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Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows 

Lavender & Ganja Chocolate Truffles

With all the edibles on the market made from butane extracted oils I’ve decided to put out one of my favorite old school ganja chocolate recipes. This one is guaranteed to work those cannabinoid receptors and includes lavender flowers, which are loaded with linolool. Plant synergy is in full effect here! A word to the wise- this isn’t dosed out in 5-10 milligrams like the legal products on the market. Eat one, wait at least 30 minutes and see how you feel before indulging in more!

Lavender & Ganja Chocolate Truffles Lavender Truffle

 3 grams of kief (kief is preferred because it distributes so well into the butter)

1/3 cup organic heavy cream

6 tbsp organic unsalted butter, cut into small pieces

1 3/4 cups organic bittersweet chocolate chips

1/3 cup organic unsweetened cocoa

2-4 dried powdered organic lavender heads (lavender can taste soapy to some people, so start with a small amount) 

  1. In a small saucepan, bring the heavy cream to a low simmer (or put in top of a double boiler to avoid overheating). Add the butter and stir until melted. Once butter is melted add the kief and half the powdered lavender and stir into mixture for 4 minutes and 20 seconds. Make sure mixture is on very low if not using a double burner. Add the chocolate chips and stir until completely melted. Remove from heat and pour into a shallow bowl.
  1. Cool, cover, and refrigerate the mixture until firm, at least 2 hours.
  1. Smoke a joint and walk in nature while waiting for truffles to harden.
  1. Use a melon baller or small spoon and roll the mixture into 1-inch balls. You should get around 30 truffles. Roll each ball into the other half of the powdered lavender and the unsweetened cocoa. Enjoy immediately or refrigerate in an airtight container for up to 2 weeks.  

Always keep these treats out of the reach of children or pets.

Have an irie 420 y’all!

With love,

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Jessica

when energy flows, wellness grows

Don’t Fear the Flowers

Many allergy sufferers fear the outdoors this time of Year. Spring brings renewal and joy for me, but for some of my clients it is nothing but grief. Red, itchy and watery eyes can be alleviated by cool herbal compresses of JuHua (chrysanthemum flowers). For post nasal drip and runny nose, mucolytics like Juniper or Cypress can dry that drip right up! Diffuse these essential oils in your home, car and office or make a 3% dilution roll-on and apply to your temples and the lymph nodes on your neck.

The plants are not our enemy, allergies are a response to a weakened Wei Qi (Defensive Qi) that needs to be strengthened. Our co-evolution with flowers, herbs and mushrooms make them your best defense against your allergic response. Then you will see what’s so great about stopping to smell the flowers!

With love,

JessicaBaker

Jessica 

when energy flows, wellness grows

Aromatic Wood Element Blend

Spring seems to be in full swing here in Denver, with the days getting up in the 70’s and the nights still dipping into the 30’s. I Love this time of year! I feel the renewed spirit of the Earth, as the longer days warm me deep within my core.

For others, Spring starts getting that Yang rising! Irritability, frustration, lack of focus and burn out can already be starting for those with a Wood element/phase imbalance.

This blend really helps me when I feel tension building in my neck and shoulders or I find it hard to take a deep breath in moments of impatience, anger or worry. As always use organic and/or ethically wild harvested herbs and essential oils.

Let It Flow Blend

3 drops Chamomile essential oil (Tanacetum is great to use too, and way less expensive)

3 drops St. Johns Wort essential oil

3 drops Myrrh essential oil 

3 drops Conifer essential oil (Pinyon pine, Douglas Fir, your choice!)

Add all essential oils (play around with what you blend first- it will give insight into the alchemy of plants as you notice the change in aroma depending on what gets added together first- use the blend even if you don’t Love the smell, these concentrated plant medicines are not to be wasted) to 1 ounces of Carrier Oil like Olive Oil, Apricot kernel or your oil of choice. I like to put my blends in roll-on bottles, that way I can carry with me and use easily anywhere I am. 

I’d love to hear how your blending goes!

With love,

jessicabaker

Jessica 

Go On An Olfactory Journey

In Tuesday’s blog I talked about terpenes and how vital these aromatic compounds are for all life on Earth. Today I’d like to take you on an olfactory journey that will allow you to experience familiar smells on a visceral level and give you a little information about the therapeutic value of terpenes.

Items to have on hand for our exploration: a journal to record your experiences and memories, a juicy orange, a bundle of lavender, and a handful of pine needles (fir, redwood, spruce- or any conifer you have access to).

If you don’t have these items handy, you can use essential oils of sweet orange (lemon, mandarin- any citrus really), lavender, and pine (or other favorite conifer)

1. Wash the outside of the orange and smell the peel. What does it smell like? Now slice orange1into the orange. Take a deep breath. What emotions are evoked when you inhale the crisp, citrus aroma?

All citrus is high in limonene, a terpene that is known to have antispasmodic properties and is used for painful intestinal conditions. Limonene is also a potential anecdote for cannabis intoxication- so have that lemonade handy if you decide to partake!

Cleanse your pallet with a sip of water.

lavender-buzz-sidebar-image-350x3502. Crush the bundle of lavender and hold it under your nose. Inhale deeply.  As you smell the familiar floral scent, what do you notice within your body?
All lavender varieties are high in linalool. The sedative and calming properties of linalool
have been extensively studied and recognized as a potent remedy against anxiety, nervous tension and stress.

Cleanse your pallet with a sip of water.

3.Boil a cup of water and place the pine needles into the hot water. Let the needles pine-cone-and-needlessteep for a couple of minutes and then inhale the infused water. Take a small sip if you feel inclined. What emotion/sensation first comes to mind upon inhalation or taste?

All conifers contain the terpene pinene, that familiar smell of pine that many of us remember from childhood. Pinene is a powerful analgesic (pain-reliever) and can also help improve memory.

Cleanse your pallet with a sip of water.

4. Experiment with other aromatic plants (rosemary, sage, thyme) and see what feelings, sensations or memories they awaken within you.

As always when we are working with these plants, give thanks and gratitude for all they provide.

With love,

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Jessica

When energy flows, wellness grows

Photo Credit: Pinterest

A Walk Down Memory Lane

Terpenes are found in plants and animals and are responsible for the aromas that we are all so used to smelling. As terpenes have contributed to the evolution of all life on Earth, their therapeutic value  can not be stressed enough.

Close your eyes and think about peeling a fresh juicy orange. Can you smell that familiar orange1citrus aroma? You’re smelling compounds within the large family of terpenes. Do you love the smell of lavender? Terpenes are responsible.  How about the smell of conifers after a refreshing autumn rain? Terpenes again.

These fragrant compounds not only hold many of our childhood memories, but they have contributed to the formation of our limbic, immune, endocannabinoid, and endocrine systems. Our ability to regulate temperature, mood and appetite are all functions of the limbic system. The limbic system is also responsible for olfaction, or smell!

The connection between plants and humans is so ancient we have forgotten who are ancestors are. I encourage you to go out and smell some plants- allow yourself to let your memory take you places you may have forgotten long ago.

More on the limbic system in Thursday’s blog, when we will explore what compounds you smell when you crush up a bunch of lavender, walk past a pine tree, and peel that juicy orange. Together we’re going to have an olfactory buffet!

With love,

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Jessica